1.1.1 Overview of ICT Define ICT.

ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.

Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research. The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and radio. Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks.


Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions. Communication is important in order to gain knowledge.


Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes products that fulfill human needs. Technology is vital in communication. Describe the brief evolution of computers.


First Generation (1940-1956)

The 1st. generation computer were huge, slow, expensive and often unreliable. In 1946, two Americans, Presper Eckert and Willian Mauchly build the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It use vacuum tube instead of mechanical switches of the MARK 1.

In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly build the UNIVAC, which could calculate at the rate of 10,000 addition per seconds.

The new invention of hardware were needed with the new computer technology. Among them are vacuum tube, punched card, magnetic tape.

Problems: • the vacuum tubes generated a great deal of heat causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control the tubes also burnt out frequently people operating the computer did not know that the problem was in the programming machine


The creation of transistor spark the production of 2nd. generation. Transistor was small devices use to transfer electronic signals across a resister. Compared to other hardware technology, transistors had many advantages such as: transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes they needed no warm up time consumed less energy generated much less heat faster and more reliable


In the 3rd. generation era, the IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. It came in several models and sizes. It was used for business and scientific programs. Other computer models introduced were CDC 7600 and B2500.

The development of integrated circuit (IC) signal the beginning of the 3rd. generation. Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961. Then came the IC technology, which had reduced the size and cost of computers. It is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip of silicone which is also known as semi conductor. Other than that, the Magnetic Core Memory was replaced by a device called the microchip. Also the first 256 bit RAM was introduced and it was the basis for development of 1K bit RAM.

A new concept in this generation was that of a family of computer which allowed computer to be upgraded and expanded as necessary. • Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper. Sold hardware & software separately which created the software industry. customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks)


The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. There are many types of computer models such as Apple Macintosh, IBM, DELL & ACER.

In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer. Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer.

During the 4th. generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and storage devices were invented. A microprocessor is a chip which is developed for computer memory and logic.

The microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors. The transistors are capable of performing all of the functions of a computer's CPU.

Advantages: Computers became 100 times smaller than ENIAC the first computer Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity Personal & software industry boomed


The 5th. generation are technologically advance and are still being development to become more efficient. The inventions of new hardware technology have grown rapidly including many other computer devices such as silicone chips, processor, robotics, virtual reality intelligent systems & programs which translate languages


After the 5th. generation computer, the technology has become more advanced, modern & sophisticated. The latest invention in are Super Computers, Mainframe Computers, Mini Computers, Personal Computers & Mobile Computers.

In the new era of computers, expert system such as teleconferencing & speech-recognition system have been invented as part of communication tools.


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